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Sponsored by:Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hubei Botanical Society
Editor-in-Chief:Li Shao-Hua
Edited by:Editorial Office of   PLANT SCIENCE  JOURNAL
Address:P.O.Box Wuhan 430074
ISSN:2095-0837
CN: 42-1817/Q
Price:¥50.00
  Current Issue
 
2008 Vol.26 Issue.1,Published 2008-02-28

研究论文
1 Preliminary Function Analysis of Rice OsRab7 in Salt Tolerance and Construction of Its Genetic Transformation Vector
YANG Xiao-Hua;PENG Xiao-Jue;YANG Guo-Hua;FENG Ling-Ling;WANG Kun;LI Yang-Sheng
Rab7 is a small GTP-binding protein belonging to the Rab family,which plays an important role in vesicle trafficking,fusion and membrane organization.Total RNA was extracted from the young leaves of ‘Nipponbare’,a salt sensitive rice variety(Oryza sativa L ssp.japonica)and specific PCR primers were designed.The sequence of OsRab7 was obtained by RT-PCR to construct the pET-32a-OsRab7 vector.Escherichina coli was used as a host organism to express and test the function of the protein in salt tolerance.The experiment has demonstrated that OsRab7 has largely improved the salt tolerance of E.coli in medium with high NaCl concentration(4.5%-8.5%).The plant genetic transformation vector was constructed using p1301B(a pCAMBIA1301 variation)and rice callus from ‘Zhonghua 11’(salt sensitive)was transformed via Agro-bacteria transformation.The expressed protein was purified as well for further research.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 3553 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3152KB] ( 2140 )
7 Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Alpha-momorcharin Gene
OUYANG Yong-Chang;;ZHUANG Dong-Hong;HU Zhong;LI Xiang
Momordicin(Alpha-momorcharin)is a kind of multifunctional ribosome inactivating protein(RIP)with anti-tumor,anti-bacterial,anti-HIV and immunosuppressive activity.In this study,the gene encoding mature Alpha-momorcharin protein was amplified from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia L.by using PCR(polymerase chain reaction)method.The amplified product was cloned into expression vector pET28a(+),and then expressed in the BL21(DE3)and RosettaTM(DE3)pLysS.Only in the RosettaTM(DE3)pLysS strain,the 33-kD-weight recombinant protein of Alpha-momorcharin was successfully expressed and the soluble recombinant protein was occurred when the strain was induced with IPTG at 18℃ and 22℃ temperature.The soluble recombinant protein was purified by the Ni-NTA resin and followed by Western-blotting analysis.This result revealed that the purified recombinant protein could be recognized by His-Tag antibody.It lays a foundation for further studies of the function and activity of the Alpha-momorcharin recombinant protein.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 7-11 [Abstract] ( 2916 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2660KB] ( 2253 )
12 Observations on the Behavior of Cytogenetics and Pollen Development of Alocasia odora (Lindl.) K.Koch
LIU Jin-Mei;HE Zi-Can;WU Hong;ZHANG Shou-Zhou;LI Qi-Gai;
Karyotype,meiotic behavior and pollen development of Alocasia odoras(Lindl.)K.Koch were investigated.The results showed that:(1)The karyotype formula of somatic cell was 2n=28=20 m+8 sm,belonging to Stebbins’s 2A type.The chromosome length was in the range of 7.84-12.08 μm,and the ratios of the long arm to short arms were between of 1.02-2.72.(2)At meiotic metaphase I of pollen mother cells(PMCs),some of the non-homologous chromosomes underwent reciprocal translocation as indicated by ring or chain structures,formed by four,five,six and sometimes up to twelve chromosomes.Quadruples occurred more frequently than other configurations.These demonstrated that the plants of the species were translocation heterozygotes.Mean configurations calculated through five individuals of one population were 5.61Ⅱ0+3.72Ⅱ+0.89Ⅳ0+0.06Ⅴ+0.78Ⅵ0 +0.06Ⅻ,10.38Ⅱ0+3.63Ⅱ,9.15Ⅱ0+2.85Ⅱ+1Ⅳ0,7.76Ⅱ0+3.76Ⅱ+1.24Ⅳ0,8.52Ⅱ0+3.41Ⅱ+1.03Ⅳ0,respectively,where Ⅱ0,Ⅳ0 and Ⅵ0 symbolize the rings of bivalent,quadruple and hexadruple.The metaphase I configuration was constant for individual plant but variable among different individuals.(3)Chromosomal bridges and lagging at anaphase I were at a ratio of 15.5% of the observed cells.(4)The mature pollen was spherical and binucleate,and having spinose exine.The ratio of sterile pollen was 9.3%.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 12-20 [Abstract] ( 3196 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 586KB] ( 1919 )
21 The Development and Histochemistry of Vegetative Organs in Sophora alopecuroides L.
SHI Wen-Jing;CAI Xia
The structure,development and histochemistry of vegetative organs in Sophora alopecuroides L.were studied by paraffin sectioning and the methods of histochemistry.The primary growths of the root,stem,rhizome and leaf are similar to the general developmental pattern of the dicotyledonous plants.While,during their secondary growth,part of the vascular cambium forms parenchyma cells only by periclinal divisions,so the secondary vascular tissue is divided into bundles.There are some differences in structure between stem and rhizome.The leaf is typical bifacial leaf.In the stem,rhizome and main vein of the leaf,the fiber bundles around the primary phloem are derived from procambium cells exterior to the protophloem.The results of histochemistry showed that the alkaloid is mainly contained in the parenchyma cells of the root,stem,rhizome and leaf.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 21-30 [Abstract] ( 3187 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 594KB] ( 1775 )
31 Anatomical Studies on the Root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
LI Xin;WEI Shuo-Nan
The development and the structure of the one-year-old and two-year-old root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were studied by paraffin section.The development of root could be divided into four stages,promeristem,primary meristem,primary structure and secondary growth stage.The promeristem is consisted of three groups of initial cells,which have typical cytological characteristics of meristem cells.The primary meristem is composed of calyptrogens,primordial epidermises,periblems and pleromes.Both the calyptrogens and the primordial epidermises initiate from the same layer of initial cells.The primary structure consistes of epidermis,cortex and stele.The primary xylem is diarch.The secondary growth mainly depend on the activities of vascular cambium and cork cambium;the cork cambium originates from pericyclic cells.The structures of the two-year-old tap roots are similar to that of the one-year-old ones,while the periderm thickness is increased.In the secondary xylems of the two-year-old roots,the woody fibers are distributed in groups and the interxylary phellem appears.The vascular rays are multiseriate.Phellem cells surround a sclereid form the phellem cycle in the phloem nearby the periderm.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 31-37 [Abstract] ( 3072 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 785KB] ( 2796 )
38 A New Variety of Polygonum from Jiangxi and Its Morphological Characters of Leaf Epidermis
LI Bo;CHEN Shao-Feng;ZHANG Wen-Gen
Polygonum suffultum Maxim.var.tomentosum B.Li.et S.F.Chen,a new variety of the Polygonaceae from Mt.Lushan,Jiangxi,China,is described.This variety is different from the typical one by hair-covering on lower epidermal,sinuolate anticlinal wall of lower leaf epidermal cells and anisocytic type stomas.The stomas are 20.15-27.55 μm long,17.45-22.47 μm wide,and 128.91 Num./mm2 dense.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 38-40 [Abstract] ( 3093 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 399KB] ( 2346 )
41 Quantitative Vegetation Classification of Qichai Region in Hainan Island
LONG Wen-Xing;YANG Xiao-Bo;LI Dong-Hai;GUO Tao;HUANG Yun-Feng;LUO Tao
After species data and environmetal information were obtained based on vegetation surveys in Li minority region in Qichai,Hainan Island,a classification and ordination were made with PC-ORD software.After referring to the classification principles of"Chinese Vegetation",reviewing related research data such as"Guangdong Vegetation",and artificially adjusting quantitative classification results,the vegetation classification system of Qichai region was established.It includes three vegetation type groups,eight vegetation types,two formation groups and six formations.The six formations are discribed as Form.Bombax ceiba+Lannea coromandelica+Terminalia nigrovenulosa,Form.Pinus latteri,Form.Imperata arundinacea,Form.L.coromandelica+Kleinhovia hospital+B.ceiba,Form.Dacrydium pierrei+Syzygium araiocladum+Cyclobalanopsis bambusaefolia and Form.Vatica mangavhapoi+Ameslodendron chinense+Ficus altissima+Koilodepas hainanensis.The first axis of NMDS ordination expresses the gradients of soil moisture,while the second one depicts the height change of elevation.Therefore,plot arrangements in the axes are fitted with their practical distributions in the fields.The vegetation formation,distribution and change in the region may be related to its special climatic conditions and unique human activities of Li minority.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 41-46 [Abstract] ( 3800 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 351KB] ( 3399 )
47 Comparison of Plant Flora of Song Mountain and Jigong Mountain Natural Reserve in Henan Province
DONG Dong-Ping
The Song Mountain and Jigong Mountain,belonging to the middle and south parts of Henan Province in China.Song Mountain is National Forest Park and world famous Tourism Area;Jigong Mountain is National Natural Reserve and one of the famous scenic spot in China.On basis of getting the up-to-date flora to a data of study in the open country,the flora of Song Mountain and Jigong Mountain has carried out comparison research,making use of mathematic model to have calculated comparability coefficient.Study result shows:Song Mountain has seed plants of 126 families,586 genera and 1335 species,the flora gives first place to temperate zone component,and having the certain tropical species in the same way.The flora of Song Mountain has a more tightness contact with Northwest China and North China.The Jigong Mountain has seed plants 157 families,675 genera 1583 species,though the temperate zone component holds the certain proportion,tropical species is rich,the transition characteristic is obvious,the area relation is closer with Central China and East China,incline towards north subtropics flora areas,having explained that the climate and physical geography environment is the key element of dividing into two area flora.The similarity in Song Mountain and Jigong Mountain flora shows the temperate species occupying certain advantage,indicating that deciduous broad-leaved forest in temperate zone component still is a relatively stable forest cover of two area types.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 47-52 [Abstract] ( 3073 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 274KB] ( 2481 )
53 Characteristics of Pinus kwangtungensis Community in Luokeng Nature Reserve,Guangdong Province
WANG Hou-Lin;MIAO Shen-Yu;WU Wei-Dong;XUE Xi-Ta;JIN Jian-Hua
Characteristics of Pinus kwangtunensis community in Luokeng Provincial Nature Reserve,Qujiang,Guangdong Province,were studied using quadrat method for better conservation of the national endangered species.There are 237 species of vascular plants belonging to 74 families and 126 genera in a sampling area of 3400 m>.The dominant families of community are Fagaceae,Lauraceae,Ericaceae,Rosaceae,Theaceae and Aquifoliaceae.The dominant species of the community are P.kwangtungensis,Schima remotiserrata,Rhododendron simiarum,and Pentaphylax euryoides.Most of the floristic elements of seed plants at the familial and generic level are Pan-tropical and tropical-Asia areal-types,which show some transition character of southern and mid-subtropical elements.Analyses on the species age structure indicate that the edificatory species population of P.kwangtungensis intends a declining population.The dominant species populations of S.remotiserrata,R·simiarum,and P.euryoides are in relative stable stage,meanwhile the species population of Cyclobalanopsis obovatifolia and Podocarpus macrophyllus var·maki will apparently increase their population size because there are a lot of seedlings in the generation layer.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 53-58 [Abstract] ( 3205 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 265KB] ( 2333 )
59 Spatial pattern of Adiantum reniforme var.sinense,Endemic to the Three-Gorge Reservoir Region
ZHOU Sai-Xia;;JIANG Ming-Xi;HUANG Han-Dong
The spatial distribution pattern of Adiantum reniforme var.sinense was analyzed by Ripley’s K-function.Population patterns and spatial association of A.reniforme var.sinense depend on spatial scales and individual plant sizes,and so do their intraspecific relationships.On the scales less than 4.5 m,the population is usually characterized by clumped distribution,and their spatial association is considerably obviously positive.By contrast,if the scales enlarge beyond some points(5 m),the plants will disperse randomly,and their spatial association will loosen greatly.Mature individuals are more likely to follow clumped distribution than those small ones.The spatial association between plants will turn weak if their size differences are large.The abundant seedlings in the plot implied regeneration of A.reniforme var.sinense was moderate,but the seedlings distributed unevenly.Finally,according to the habitat of A.reniforme var.sinense in nature,we proposed a few strategies for its preservation which included reducing clear-cutting,increasing properly shrub coverage and decreasing herb coverage.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 59-63 [Abstract] ( 3206 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 263KB] ( 3338 )
64 The Effects of Several Environmental Factors on the Photosynthesis of Botryococcus braunii
YIN Da-Cong;GENG Ya-Hong;MEI Hong;OUYANG Zheng-Rong;HU Hong-Jun;LI Ye-Guang
The effects of temperature,light intensity,pH value and salinity on photosynthesis of Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 and B.braunii UTEX 2441 were studied by measuring net photosynthetic O2 evolution.For B.braunii UTEX 572,the suitable light intensity range was 400-1600 μmol·m-2·s-1,with the saturation light intensity 800 μmol·m-2·s-1;the suitable temperature range was 25-35℃,with the optimal temperature about 30℃;the suitable pH range was 5.0-8.0,with the optimal pH about 7.0,the suitable salinity range was 0-0.2 mol·L-1,with the optimal salinity about 0.1 mol·L-1.For B.braunii UTEX 2441,the suitable light intensity range was 400-1600 μmol·m-2·s-1,with the saturation light intensity 400 μmol·m-2·s-1;the suitable temperature range was 25-35℃,with the optimal temperature about 30℃;the suitable pH range was 5.0-8.0,with the optimal pH about 7.0;the net photosynthetic O2 evolution decreased dramatically while the salinity increased.The photosynthetic characteristics of two B.braunii strains indicated the basic physiological and ecological characteristics:adaption to relative strong light intensity,relative high temperature,neutral to acid environment and lower salinity.The results are helpful for optimizing the culture condition.Some differences exist between two B.braunii strains in their response to the change of light intensity,temperature,pH value and salinity,compared with B.braunii UTEX 2441,B.braunii UTEX 572 has higher saturation light intensity,adaptive to higher temperature and much broader pH,its growth is promoted by mild increase of salinity,which indicates that B.braunii UTEX 572 has greater potential for fast growth in cultivation,the result provided evidence for selecting good strain that suitable for mass culture of B.braunii.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 64-69 [Abstract] ( 3994 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 294KB] ( 2562 )
70 Effects of Alkalinity on Photosynthesis Activity and Ultrastructure of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905
KANG Li-Juan;PAN Xiao-Jie;CHANG Feng-Yi;LI Dun-Hai;SHEN Yin-Wu;LIU Yong-Ding
The effect of alkalinity on terrestrial plants has been studied extensively,but little is known for aquatic plants,particularly for its effect on freshwater bloom-algae.Therefore,the bloom forming blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905 was chosen in the current study and cultured in medium with 2.3 mmol/L HCO3-(ALK2.3)or 12.4 mmol/L HCO3-(ALK12.4)in order to compare the growth,photosynthetic performance,pigments,malondialdehyde(MDA)and ultrastructure at different alkalinity.Compared with the control,the biomass of ALK2.3 and ALK12.4 treatments decreased by 7% and 55% after 13 days culture,respectively.The contents of chlorophyll a of ALK2.3 and ALK12.4 treatments were also decreased by 22% and 88% during the same period,respectively.At ALK2.3,Chl a was decreased significantly from the 7th day except for the 9th day,while Chlorophyll a/phycocyanin(Chl a/PC)ratio did not change much except on the 7th day.At ALK12.4,Chl a began to increase after the 5th day and reached the maximum on the 7th day.Chl a became lower than that of the control after the 9th day.The Chl a/PC ratio increased on the 3rd day and then declined.At ALK2.3,photosynthetic activity was inhibited at the first 7 days of culture and then recovered to normal level.At ALK12.4,the photosynthetic activity also showed a similar inhibition-recovery mode,but it did not restore the normal level at the end of culture.The MDA contents of both ALK12.4 and ALK2.3 treatments were increased,but the degree was higher under ALK12.4 than under ALK2.3.The number of liposomes in ALK12.4 treatment was more than that of ALK2.3,which in turn was more than that of the control,while number of thylakoids was in a reverse order.In summary,the biomass was decreased by elevated alkalinity,which might be due to the decreased photosynthetic activity and damage of photosynthetic apparatus.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 70-75 [Abstract] ( 3487 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 582KB] ( 2153 )
76 Effect of KNO3 Concentrations on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Rhodella reticulata
ZHANG Yan-Yan;CHEN Bi-Lian;LIU Mei
The unicellular red alga,Rhodella reticulata,can synthesize some bioactive substances such as phycobiliprotein and exopolysaccharides.In this paper,the growth and physiological of Rh.reticulata under different KNO3 concentrations were studied.The parameters,such as growth rate,exopolysaccharide,phycocyanin,pigments,nitrate reductase and SOD,were used in the assays.The result showed that Rh.reticulata grew the best under 0.75 g/L nitrate condition compared with nitrogen free medium,the alga also produced the highest activity of nitrate reductase,phycocyanin content(24 mg/L),and caroteneid(1.42 mg/L).While at the concentration 7.5 g/L nitrate,Rh.reticulata produced the most content of chlorophyll a(1.91 mg/L).Higher nitrogen promoted the accumulation of Rh.reticulata exopolysaccharides.We got 1.633 g/L of exopolysaccharides when the concentration of nitrate was 30 g/L.With the increasing of KNO3 concentration,the activity of SOD enhanced.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 76-80 [Abstract] ( 3609 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 248KB] ( 3026 )
81 Effects of Methyl Viologen on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parametersin Rice Cultivars with Different Cold-sensitivity
WANG Guo-Li;GUO Zhen-Fei
The roots of rice seedlings were treated with different concentrations of Methyl Viologen(MV)solutions,and the effects of different oxidative stress on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of different cold-sensitive cultivars at normal and low temperature were studied.The results showed that at normal temperature,Fv/FmPSⅡ and qP of rice seedlings were higher,whereas the parameters were lower treated by higher concentration of MV in longer time than that in their controls,and the cultivar with cold-tolerance had higher NPQ.At low temperature,Fv/Fm increased only when treated by MV5 in shorter time,ΦPSⅡ and qP both decreased with all treatments,and NPQ increased with treatments of less concentration MV in shorter time.This suggests that less oxidative stress may promote the photosynthetic capacity of rice,but oxidative stress could prick up the hurt to rice at low temperature,and the cold-tolerant cultivar showed stronger cold-tolerance because it could relieve the excessive oxidative hurt through maintaining higher linear electron transport rate and heat dissipation ability.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 81-86 [Abstract] ( 3580 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 300KB] ( 2352 )
87 Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Hypericum hubeiense by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS
BAI Jie;WANG Dong-Mei;YANG De-Po
Hypericum hubeiense L.H.Wu et D.P.Yang is a new species of Hypericum(Clusiaceae)distributing in China.The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents in the hydroalcoholic extract of H.hubeiense was performed by using HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS.12 main constituents were identified or tentatively identified.The contents of hypericins in the hydroalcoholic extract of H.hubeiense were measured by HPLC analysis monitored at 590 nm using synthetic hypericin as the external standard compound.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 87-90 [Abstract] ( 3073 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 176KB] ( 2356 )
91 Geographic Distribution and Resource Status of Three Important Medicinal Epimedium Species
XU Yan-Qin;LI Zuo-Zhou;ZHANG Xue-Jun;CHEN Jian-Jun;ZHOU Jian-Feng;WANG Ying
Some species in genus Epimedium L.have been used as medicinal and ornamental ground cover plants,and have a tremendous potential for commercial development.In this study,we conducted field survey on three important and representative medicinal Epimedium species(i.e.E.koreanum,E.sagittatum and E.brevicornum)aiming at promoting the sustainable utilization and development of Epimedium resources.The results showed that E.koreanum distributed in Northeast China,mainly along the Changbai Mountains.Wild resources of this species were seriously deteriorated due to years of over-harvesting,thus,reasonable conservation strategies should be taken urgently.E.brevicornum distributed in Gansu,Shaanxi,Ningxia,Shanxi,and Henan provinces.The wild resources of this species are abundant but rarely utilized.E.sagittatum is widely distributed in eastern and southern China with low plant density in each population.Moreover,the morphological characteristics of this species vary greatly among different populations.Further studies on species confirmation and systematics should be carried out.According to the results of our field investigation,over-harvesting of E.koreanum should be inhibited while the reasonable exploitation of E.brevicornum should be encouraged in order to utilize the wild resources sustainably.For E.sagittatum,considering the high level of intraspecific variation in morphology and medicinal quality,we should evaluate the wild resources comprehensively and identify the populations with high phytochemical contents before further exploitation.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 91-98 [Abstract] ( 3465 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 451KB] ( 3124 )
99 The Electrochemical Methods Measuring Photosynthesis of Submerged Macrophytes
LI Wei;YIN Li-Yan
Measuring photosynthesis rate accurately is very important in photosynthesis studies.However it is difficult to use the common measuring methods developed in land plant studies for the measurement of photosynthesis of submerged macrophytes because of their special habitat.In this paper,the characteristics of dissolved inorganic carbon is described in detail before the introduction of the principles of pH-stat and pH-drift-the electrochemical methods measuring photosynthesis of submerged aquatic macrophytes.The changes of inorganic carbon in water solutions of the two methods can be easily calculated by Gran-titration.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 99-103 [Abstract] ( 3400 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 267KB] ( 3412 )
104 Analysis of Antibacterial Characteristic of Medical Pteridophytes of a Few Species of Dryopteridaceae
SONG Lei;JIANG De-Quan;LI Xin-Guo;WU Shi-Fu
The effects of different excrement extracts of medical pteridophytes of the six species of Dryopteridaceae on the growth of a few kinds of common microorganism have been studied,the results have showed that they have a very good antibacterial effect generally,specially to Staphylococcus aureus.The greatest antibacterial ratio reached 90.4 percent;The antibacterial effects of the three genera of Dryopteridaceae have been compared,Polystichum is the most superior generally;In excrement extracts,alcohol extract is not superior to water extract obviously.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 104-107 [Abstract] ( 3219 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 186KB] ( 2581 )
108 Studies on the Increment,Flower and Mineral Nutrient Change of Three Cultivars of Osmanthus fragrans Lour
CHEN Hong-Guo;ZHOU Kai-Bing;ZHANG Hong-Yan
Three cultivars of sweet Osmanthus,Osmanthus fragrans ‘Liuyeyingui’,‘Shangui’ and ‘Sijigui’ were studied on the increment,flower output and the change of mineral nutrient.The results showed:(1)The differences of total increment and flower output were remarkable among these three cultivars.They ranged in total increment from‘Liuyeyingui’ to ‘Shangui’ to ‘Sijigui’,while in flower output per year were from ‘Liuyeyingui’ to ‘Sijigui’ to ‘Shangui’.(2)The content of different mineral had changed differently.K,Ca,Mg,Fe,Cu appeared a change of a single peak:the content of K,Ca,Cu reached the peak value at April while Fe and Mg at August;the annual changes of the content of N and P had two peak value at April and October.On the other hand,Mn and Zn changed differently with a single peak and a double peak respectively.
2008 Vol. 26 (1): 108-112 [Abstract] ( 2783 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 229KB] ( 2376 )
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